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Continual Assurance of Learning-Enabled, Cyber-Physical Systems (LE-CPS)

Safety Verification of Cyber-Physical Systems with Reinforcement Learning Control

Abstract

This paper proposes a new forward reachability analysis approach to verify safety of cyber-physical systems (CPS) with reinforcement learning controllers. The foundation of our approach lies on two efficient, exact and over-approximate reachability algorithms for neural network control systems using star sets, which is an efficient representation of polyhedra. Using these algorithms, we determine the initial conditions for which a safety-critical system with a neural network controller is safe by incrementally searching a critical initial condition where the safety of the system cannot be established. Our approach produces tight over-approximation error and it is computationally efficient, which allows the application to practical CPS with learning enable components (LECs). We implement our approach in NNV, a recent verification tool for neural networks and neural network control systems, and evaluate its advantages and applicability by verifying safety of a practical Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS) with a reinforcement learning (RL) controller trained using the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) method. The experimental results show that our new reachability algorithms are much less conservative than existing polyhedra-based approaches. We successfully determine the entire region of the initial conditions of the AEBS with the RL controller such that the safety of the system is guaranteed, while a polyhedra-based approach cannot prove the safety properties of the system.

Year of Publication
2019
Conference Name
The International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT)
Publisher
ACM
Conference Location
New York, New York, USA
DOI
10.1145/3358230