Verification of Neural Network Compression of ACAS Xu Lookup Tables with Star Set Reachability
Neural network approximations have become attractive to compress data for automation and autonomy algorithms for use on storage-limited and processing-limited aerospace hard-ware. However, unless these neural network approximations can be exhaustively verified to be safe, they cannot be certified for use on aircraft. This manuscript evaluates the safety of a neural network approximation of the unmanned Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS Xu). First, a set of ACAS Xu closed-loop benchmarks is introduced, based on a well-known open-loop benchmark, that are challenging to analyze for current verification tools due to the complexity and high-dimensional plant dynamics. Additionally, the system of switching and classification-based nature of the ACAS Xu neural network system adds another challenge to existing analysis methods. Experimental evaluation shows selected scenarios where the safety of the ownship aircraft’s neural network action selection is assessed with respect to an intruder aircraft over time in a closed loop control evaluation. Set-based analysis of the closed-loop benchmarks is performed using the Star Set representation using both the NNV tool and the nnenum tool, demonstrating that set-based analysis is becoming increasingly feasible for the verification of this class of systems.